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Is it a Learning Disability?
Learning Disabilities Checklist
Math achievement lags behind learning in other subjects, in spite of average or advanced skills in speech, reading, and writing. Number tasks produce anxiety and distress. Students work earnestly in math and may receive "mercy grades" for advancement. Score reports from benchmark tests document consistent under-performance.
Dyscalculia is defined as consistent failure to achieve in mathematics commensurate with age, intelligence, adequate instruction, and effort. It is marked by difficulties with counting, working memory, visualization; visuospatial, directional, and sequential perception and processing; retrieval of learned facts and procedures; quantitative reasoning speed; motor sequencing; perception of time; and the accurate interpretation and representation of numbers when reading, copying, writing, reasoning, speaking, and recalling. Dyscalculia affects 6% to 7% of the population, and up to 26%, when including weaker forms.
random number and symbol mixups when reading, thinking, copying, writing, speaking, and remembering
unreliable memory of numbers, math facts, rules, and procedures
inordinate effort nets disappointing results
poor mental figuring
counting and calculation with fingers or marks
is quickly overwhelmed- experiences frustration, tears, distress, anxiety, panic, and avoidance
struggles with handling money
See more in The Dyscalculia Checklist
Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) are defined in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.
"Specific Learning Disorder-- with impairment in Mathematics (315.1), Reading (315.0), or Written Expression (315.2). SLD is "a neurodevelopmental disorder of biological origin manifested in learning difficulties and problems in acquiring academic skills markedly below age level and manifested in the early school years, lasting for at least 6 months, not attributed to intellectual disabilities, developmental disorders, or neurological or motor disorders."
How to Teach Math
Mahesh Sharma's Center for Teaching and Learning Mathematics
Tuesday Webinars 8 AM ET Join Free
Karismath Grades 1-5 Math Lessons for Dyscalculics by Shad Moraif
YouCubed @ Stanford University
Visual, Creative Math Instruction by Dr. Jo Boaler
LEGAL GUIDANCE on DYSCALCULIA, DYSLEXIA, DYSGRAPHIA, & LEARNING DISABILITIES
Federal DOE Guidance on Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, & Dysgraphia and IEPs (10/2015)
Federal Guide: IEP Goals Must Align w/ Current Grade-level Content Standards (11/2015)
Video: Saying dyslexia, dyscalculia, & dysgraphia in schools - Michael Yudin, Assistant Secretary of Special Education & Rehab Services (2015)
National Institutes of Health on Dyscalculia Diagnosis & Management (2012)
Math Doesn't Add Up
Explaining Dyscalculia and Overcoming Number Problems for Children and Adults - The author goes from number-blind to a college professor. by Paul Moorcraft
Why so Hard?
Why is Math so Hard for Some Children
by Daniel Berch and Michele Mazzocco
by Jo Boaler
Math in Mind
A Mind for Numbers by Dr. Barbra Oakley at University of California-San Diego - [TedTalk]
Mindshift: - Break through barriers to learning
Coursera: Learning How to Learn
by Judy Willis, MD, Neuroscientist and Classroom Teacher
Math for All (2021) is a book for kids to change attitudes about math. By Mark Hansen.
Untether: Inspiration for Living Free and Strong, No Matter What the Challenge by JT Mestdagh (2019)
JT graduated college, wrote a book, and climbs mountains, in spite of severe dyslexia and serious health problems!