Math achievement lags behind learning in other subjects, in spite of average or advanced skills in speech, reading, and writing. Number tasks produce confusion, anxiety, and distress. Students work earnestly in math and may receive "mercy grades" for advancement, however, standardized tests reveal deficits. Detailed score reports from benchmark tests document consistent under-performance over time.
random number and symbol mixups when reading, thinking, copying, writing, speaking, and remembering
unreliable memory of numbers, math facts, rules, and procedures
inordinate effort nets disappointing results
poor mental figuring
counting and calculation with fingers or marks
is quickly overwhelmed- experiences frustration, tears, distress, anxiety, panic, and avoidance
struggles with handling money
See more in The Dyscalculia Checklist
Specific Learning Disorders (SLDs) are defined in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.
"Specific Learning Disorder-- with impairment in Mathematics (315.1), Reading (315.0), or Written Expression (315.2). SLD is "a neurodevelopmental disorder of biological origin manifested in learning difficulties and problems in acquiring academic skills markedly below age level and manifested in the early school years, lasting for at least 6 months, not attributed to intellectual disabilities, developmental disorders, or neurological or motor disorders."
Video: Saying dyslexia, dyscalculia, & dysgraphia in schools - Michael Yudin, Assistant Secretary of Special Education & Rehab Services (2015)